Thursday, December 10, 2015

仙桃一中, Youngcui Yan, zhiyuan Yang, Fei Yang, Jian Tan, Huijiao Hu, and Ji Yan

仙桃一中


仙桃第一中学
初中
Address: Huangjin Ave, Xiantao, Hubei, China
      仙桃第一中学始创于1958年,是著名作家池莉的母校。2003年1月25日,市人民政府与海南天森投资有限公司合作新建仙桃一中。2004年7月19 日,仙桃一中整体搬迁至黄金大道88号。新校园气势恢宏,环境幽雅,风景秀丽,占地568亩,建筑面积15万平方米,湖北第一大,全国数一流。学校设施完 备,现代化程度高。教学楼、实验楼、图书科技综合楼、公寓楼、学术报告厅、体育艺术馆、塑胶运动场,布局合理,功能齐全。餐厅、超市、澡堂、洗衣房、医务 室等服务设施一应俱全。

      学校现有100个教学班,在校学生6000多人,正式教职工380多人,其中特级教师2人,全国优秀教师3人,高级教师119人,省级骨干教师、市级学科 带头人24人,省级劳模、先进工作者9人,师资力量雄厚。学校始终坚持"三个面向",全面贯彻国家的教育方针,建构和谐学校,不断提高核心竞争力。确立 了"面向全体,对每一个学生负责,让他们在原有基础上争创最大进步"的办学理念。形成了"求真、务实、团结、进取"的校风和"博学、严谨、敬业、爱生"的 教风及"勤学、守纪、尊师、爱校"的学风。学校坚持以学生发展为本,让教学成为一门艺术,让学习成为一种快乐,用高尚的师德教育人,用科学的方法培养人, 实行全封闭、半军事化管理,教师尽心,学生开心,家长放心。

      仙桃一中坚持德育为首,质量立校,科研兴校,高考年年打胜仗、创奇迹。进名校、上重点、过本科的比率居全省同类学校前列。理科培养出清华学子,文科造就多届市高考状元。目前仙桃一中已成为江汉平原最受欢迎的中学之一。

      学校被授予湖北省教代会先进学校、湖北省体育先进学校、湖北省卫生先进学校、湖北省"安全文明校园"称号,被湖北省教育厅定确定的52所研究性学习试点学 校之一,《中国教育报》曾介绍过该校成功的办学经验。先后有原副省长辜胜祖,副省长郭生练,省委常委、省委宣传部长张昌尔,省长罗清泉,中共中央政治局委 员、湖北省委书记俞正声等领导同志来校视察。在市委、市政府和市教育局领导的亲切关怀和大力支持下,仙桃一中快速发展,如日中天,正在创造新的辉煌。

      展望未来,仙桃一中将不断更新教育观念,继续推进科研兴校战略,进一步深化教育教学改革,锐意创新,与时俱进,为早日成为国家级示范学校而奋斗。

A Brief Introduction of Xiantao No.1 Middle School

Xiantao No.1 Middle School is located in Xiantao City proper, which is directly under Hubei provincial government and 80 kilometers west of Wuhan. The school, originally founded in 1958, was reestablished in January 2003 cooperatively by Xiantao Municipality and Hainan Tiansen Investment Corporation Limited. In July 2004 the school was wholly moved to the current site, 88 Golden Avenue. The new school campus, quiet and beautiful, occupies an area of 568 mu, with a building area of around 150, 000 square meters, making it the largest in Hubei and one of the best in the country. ChiLi, a nationwide famous woman writer, once studied and graduated from here.
Xiantao No.1 Middle School is equipped with all necessary devices and enjoys a rather high level of modernization. All the buildin[FS:PAGE]gs are rationally distributed and serve different functions. There are teaching buildings, labs, students’ apartments, a science library, an academic lecture hall, a gym & art gallery, and a plastic cement playground. In addition, other attached facilities are also provided for people’s life and work, such as canteens, a supermarket, a bathhouse, a laundry, and a clinic and so on.

At present, there are over 100 classes, made up of more than 6, 000 students. The school is also ideally staffed, with over 370 teachers and 100 other personnel, among whom 2 are special-degreed teachers, 81 senior-degreed teachers, 24 provincial backbone teachers or subject leaders of the city and 12 others have been recognized as provincial model workers.

In the past decades, the school has always been keeping consistent with the national educational policies and trying to construct a harmonious school to promote its competitive capability. It always sticks to the Three Faces, namely "Education must face the world, education must face the modernization, and education must face the future". Through years of exploration, the school has set up its own educational ideology--"Facing all students, being responsible for every single person, cultivating students' potential to the greatest extent". Guided by the school motto "Realistic, Practical, United, Progressive", the whole staff worship a doctrine "Knowledgeable, Strict, Devoted, Loving students" and the students worship "Diligent, Self-disciplined, Respecting teachers, Loving school". Besides, the school has also been persisting in giving priority to students' personal development, attempting to make teaching an art and learning a joy by means of scientific teaching methods. Currently the school is conducting a wholly-enclosed and half-military school management model. As a result, the teachers are working contentedly and students are learning wholly absorbedly.
Owing to its standpoint that moral education comes first and quality strengthens a school, Xiantao No. 1 Middle School has won victories one after another in all fields, especially in the National Entrance Examination to Colleges. It takes leadership among schools of the same style in the percentage of students being admitted to universities. The school has always been maintaining superiority to other schools in subjects of art, having brought up quite a few champions in the city, whereas its subjects of science have also caught up, having raised a couple of students to Tsinghua University.

Over the past few years the school has been awarded a number of titles and honors, such as "Hubei Advanced School in Physical Education", "Hubei Advanced School of Teachers' Representative Council", "Hubei Advanced School in Health Care" and "Safety & Civilized School Campus of Hubei Province". It is also among the 52 schools recognized by Hubei Educational Depar[FS:PAGE]tment as Research-studies Experimental Spots. The school's successful experience has been reported in detail by the newspaper Chinese Education Daily, having attracted extensive attention across the Chinese society. Successively the school has been inspected by many political leaders, such as Guo Shenglian (Vice-governor), Luo Qingquan (Governor), Zhang Erchang (Propaganda Minister), and Yu Zhengsheng (Provincial General Secretary of CPC). Looking forward to the future, Xiantao No.1 Middle School will spare no efforts to revise its educational ideology, reinforce its strategy of "Scientific research strengthens a school", and deepen its education and teaching reform. Moreover, the school will also continuously innovate and advance with the times, expecting to become a national demonstration school.

Saturday, December 5, 2015

picking up the pieces by watchful hands (short story slam week 34)

there are lots of writers
who write for comedy,
not for business

today i pick a few guests
who be hosted or promoted
via Jeopardy

and on the price is right tv,
we often are entertained by many
including Drew Carey

how about Lisa Carney,
who happens to be a neighborly friend
and her son Rylan Carney is tall

think of Dennis James, Rachel Reynold,
I feel the high IQ and the colorful products
and God bless Madeline Pickens

and now we say more people to explore
the wit and insights from new England, hohoho,
let's pray for Molly Boren, and Morton Schapiro

merry christmas, to Michelle Obama,
Tracy Jill Biden, Amy Shen, Asya Classen, Trent Swanson
and Joe Mitchell, Meredith Blecha Wells, Dennis McClurg, and Gayla Foster

Short Story Slam Week 34 on Holiday Sentiments google.com

Six Word Friday--Faith

 My Faith Is My Daily Posts

My Memory Art
Six Word Fridays ~ Faith


faith is my footsteps,
in case when I must walk a few miles
so that my health improves

faith is my footsteps
sensitive people stalk to compete
sex machine spins too fast

in case when I must walk a few miles
I then do sight seeing and coffee drinking 
do visit tom n tom's bakery

so that my health improves
only if I make peace with patti veit
and the price is right host is bob baker


 

Sunday, November 8, 2015

short story slam week 32, sunday whirl 224, shawdow shot sunday 2



Bluebell Books Twitter Club!

 

Geometric shadows

 not sticking to pancakes only,
I often eat texas toasts, Florida prunes,
samples of mature menu seem more fitting

stunning pictures may trap my eyes,
dreams of Harry Potter and his London trips spin,
bystanders often surprise translucent noon

vapid pains crawl with iron grid
when a stranger cocks a bleary glance
and disagree that votes shall be counted as credits



 
Wordle 224


224

Saturday, October 24, 2015

october write day 24 and short story slam week 31


octpowrimo.com

OctPoWriMo 2015
It's Day 24 of #OctPoWriMo

Word Prompts:

Imaginary
tale
adventure
drama
fantasy







Bluebell Books Twitter Club!

my entry combining both prompts:

I search no truth
but fictional facts
I watch butterfly lovers
yet refuse to griev

drama, yue opera,
movie, jing singers,
adventure, short story,
fairy tale, firefly

sad boy detective
sam sax writes,
black Lawrence press
Gibson, Brown, and Fugle

patricia goetiel,
an imagery poet,
phil bostan,
a modern novelist

the sky goes dark
the crows fall quiet
bats hang upside down,
a bold head plays guitar, alone



Friday, September 18, 2015

the diverse opinions

without respect to diversity,
without joy
without preservation of versatile in intelligence,
without justice
.
people gather,
thoughts cook,
fair weather
rain could be better
.
everyone has a deferring circle,
nobody shall try to single out one
and beat the rest
that's what we always intend to confess
.
never pass others home to a stranger
unless you buy it,
there is always room for all,
that's why we try to adore both winter and fall.

Tuesday, August 18, 2015

JWU Only RI University in Education Initiative (Johnson and Wales University)

 



Johnson & Wales University has been selected by the Carnegie Project on the Education Doctorate (CPED) to participate in an international initiative aimed at strengthening the education doctorate degree (EdD) for future education leaders. JWU is the only Rhode Island higher education institution taking part in this project.
“The Carnegie Project on the Education Doctorate gives us the opportunity to engage with others from the US, Canada and New Zealand,” said Thomas DiPaola, PhD, director of the doctoral program at JWU.
“Learning best practices that have been successful elsewhere will help us build on our on-going efforts to enhance the JWU Educational Leadership Doctoral Program. Our selection to participate in the Consortium is a tribute to JWU and our faculty, as well as our alumni and current students. We are extremely excited and honored to have been selected.”
“The expansion of the Consortium to a third cohort speaks to the credibility of this faculty-led effort and to our dedication to learn from diverse settings around the US and beyond its borders as a means to develop the strongest professional preparation in education,” stated Jill Perry, executive director of the CPED.
The vision of the Consortium is to transform the EdD (referred to as a Professional Practice Doctorate) into the degree of choice in preparing the next generation of practitioner experts, as well as K-12 and college leaders in education. This work is especially important for those who will generate research and quality academic achievement as it relates to educational practices and policies.
With the addition of a third cohort, the CPED Consortium will total 87 schools and colleges working together to standardize the EdD. Joining JWU as the 33 schools selected for this cohort include Northeastern University, Brigham Young University, and Texas A & M.

Friday, August 7, 2015

Tunghai University

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tunghai University
東海大學
The seal of Tunghai University
Motto 求眞 篤信 力行[1]
Motto in English
Truth, Faith, Deeds[1]
Established 1955
Type Private
President Ming-Jer Tang
Location Xitun, Taichung, Republic of China (Taiwan)
24°10′41″N 120°36′13″ECoordinates: 24°10′41″N 120°36′13″E
Campus Urban
Mascot None
Affiliations Association of Christian Universities and Colleges in Asia
Website www.thu.edu.tw
Tunghai University
Traditional Chinese 東海大學
The Luce Memorial Chapel is a Christian chapel on the campus of Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan. It was designed by the architect and artist Chen Chi-Kwan in collaboration with the firm of noted architect I. M. Pei, and named in honor of the Rev. Henry W. Luce, an American missionary in China in the late 19th century and father of publisher Henry Luce.
Tunghai University (THU; Chinese: 東海大學) was founded by Methodist missionaries in 1955 as a comprehensive university, the first private university and the second oldest university in Taiwan.[citation needed] The university is located in Xitun District, Taichung, Taiwan, an urbanized area. On the grounds, the Luce Memorial Chapel (designed by noted architect I. M. Pei) is a local landmark. The logo of the university contains a cross in reference to the statement in the founding documents that it was "founded in the love of Jesus," and the three linked circles refer to the Holy Trinity as well as the motto, "Truth, Faith, Deeds."[1]
The name "Tunghai" is the Wade–Giles romanization of the Chinese characters 東海 (Dōnghǎi in pinyin), literally meaning "the east coast of the Taiwan Strait".

History

Tunghai University was founded on Ta-tu Hill, west of Taichung City, in 1955 by Methodist missionaries.[2] The school was named "Tunghai" ("east sea") based on its position east of the Taiwan Strait.[3]

List of presidents

Academics

Tunghai University is organized into eight colleges which contain 35 academic departments. Tunghai has always had a deep respect for the arts and humanities and the eight colleges continues and further expands the university’s horizon.

Arts College

  • Chinese Literature
  • Foreign Languages and Literature
  • History
  • Japanese
  • Philosophy
  • Graduate Institute of Religious Studies
  • The Chinese Language Center

Agriculture College

  • Animal Science
  • Food Science
  • Hospitality Management

Engineering College

  • Chemical and Materials Engineering
  • Computer Science
  • Environmental Science
  • Industrial Engineering
  • Electrical Engineering

Management College

  • Accounting
  • Business Administration
  • Finance
  • Information Management
  • International Business
  • Statistics

Science College

  • Life Science
  • Chemistry
  • Mathematics
  • Physics

Social Science College

  • Economics
  • Political Science
  • Public Administration
  • Social Work
  • Sociology

Fine Arts and Creative Design College

  • Fine Arts
  • Music
  • Architecture
  • Industrial Design
  • Landscape Architecture

Law College

Extension Education School

Chinese Language Center

Open since 1971, Tunghai's CLC was the first language training center in central Taiwan, and has seen thousands of students from around the world learn Mandarin.

Library

The Tunghai University Library
The Tunghai University Main Library is located at the end of the Campus Mall.
Library holdings include, approximately, 600,000 volumes, 6,515 current serials, 21,523 electronic serials, nonprint formats, and rare books.[4]
Wei-Mei Climbing Wall

Student societies

Tunghai has more than one hundred student societies.
The Wei-Mei Climbing Wall was completed in 2004, in memory of Wei-Mei Lin, a leader of the Mountain Climbing Club, who died in a mountain accident in 2001. It is 12 meters high and 9 meters wide. In 2007, the wall burned down. It is now being rebuilt.

Notable alumni

Capital Normal University, beijing, Chinana

  1.  

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Capital Normal University
    首都师范大学
    Capital Normal University logo.png
    Motto 为学为师、求实求新
    Established 1954
    Type Public
    President Gong Huili (宫辉力)
    Academic staff
    2,606
    Students 31,086
    Location Beijing
    China
    Website www.cnu.edu.cn
    Capital Normal University (首都师范大学, pinyin: Shǒudū Shīfàn Dàxué, or 首师大 for short) is a university in Beijing, China. It is covered by Project 211, a policy to renew and modernize educational facilities in the People's Republic of China.[1]

    Contents

    History


    The student activity center of Capital Normal University
    Capital Normal University was founded in 1954. Previously called Beijing Teacher's College, it was renamed Capital Normal University in 1993.[2] Its current president is Gong Huili.[3]

    Academics

    Capital Normal University consists of 27 colleges and department. These include:
    • College of Literature
    • College of Political Science & Law
    • College of Foreign Languages
    • College of Music
    • College of Fine Arts
    • College of Education Science
    • Department of History
    • School of Mathematical Sciences
    • Department of Physics
    • Department of Chemistry
    • Department of Biology
    • Department of Educational Technology
    • College of Environmental Resources & Tourism
    • College of Information Engineering
    • Elementary Education College
    • Adult Education College
    • College of International Education
    The University has more than 31,086 students, including 10,763 undergraduates, 6,411 graduate students, 11,993 adult students, and 1,352 foreign students. Undergraduates can choose from 41 different majors.[1]

    Campus

    Capital Normal University comprises three campuses, all located on the Third Ring Road in northwest Beijing. The southern campus, the headquarters, houses the majority of CNU's academic programs, while the North 1 campus houses the College of International Culture, and the North 2 the College of Information Engineering.[4]

    References


  2. "A brief introduction to Capital Normal University". Archived from the original on 2007-02-16. Retrieved 2007-03-10.

  3. http://www.plumblossoms.com/WeiDong/WeiDong.html

  4. "President of Capital Normal University" (in Chinese). Official website of Capital Normal University. Retrieved 2008-10-11.

  5. "About CNU". Retrieved 2007-09-10.

Wednesday, July 15, 2015

Seventeen Wishes (Christy Miller) by Robin Jones Gunn (Goodreads Author)

Seventeen Wishes (Christy Miller, #9)

Teens across the nation have made this series from Robin Jones Gunn a bestseller? Readers can find out for themselves why the series is so popular as they, too, become friends with Christy Miller. She becomes the perfect role model for today's teens by making a commitment to Christ in the first book and then growing in her walk with the Lord in the next eleven books. Throughout the series, Christy learns about friendships, dating, becoming responsible, waiting on God, being faithful, and God's rewards for obedience. (less)
Paperback, 174 pages
Published December 12th 1993 by Focus on the Family Publishing (first published 1993)

Friday, July 3, 2015

Yangtze River or Changjiang River

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Yangzi" redirects here. For other uses, see Yangzi (disambiguation).
"Chang Jiang" redirects here. For other uses, see Changjiang.
Yangtze
长江
Cháng Jiāng
Dusk on the Yangtze River.jpg
Dusk on the Yangtze River
Country China

Tributaries
 - left Yalong, Min, Tuo, Jialing, Han
 - right Wu, Yuan, Zi, Xiang, Gan, Huangpu
Cities Yibin, Luzhou, Chongqing, Wanzhou, Yichang, Jingzhou, Yueyang, Wuhan, Jiujiang, Anqing, Tongling, Wuhu, Nanjing, Zhenjiang, Nantong, Shanghai


Source Geladaindong Peak
 - location Tanggula Mountains, Qinghai
 - elevation 5,042 m (16,542 ft)
 - coordinates 33°25′44″N 91°10′57″E
Mouth East China Sea
 - location Shanghai, and Jiangsu
 - coordinates 31°23′37″N 121°58′59″ECoordinates: 31°23′37″N 121°58′59″E

Length 6,300 km (3,915 mi) [1]
Basin 1,808,500 km2 (698,266 sq mi) [2]
Discharge
 - average 30,166 m3/s (1,065,302 cu ft/s) [3]
 - max 110,000 m3/s (3,884,613 cu ft/s) [4][5]
 - min 2,000 m3/s (70,629 cu ft/s)

The course of the Yangtze River through China
Chang Jiang
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 長江
Simplified Chinese 长江
Literal meaning The Long River
Yangtze River
Traditional Chinese 揚子江
Simplified Chinese 扬子江
Tibetan name
Tibetan འབྲི་ཆུ་
The Yangtze River (English pronunciation: /ˈjæŋtsi/ or /ˈjɑːŋtsi/), (Chinese: 长江, Cháng Jiāng), known in China as the Chang Jiang or the Yangzi, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world. It flows for 6,300 kilometers (3,915 mi) from the glaciers on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in Qinghai eastward across southwest, central and eastern China before emptying into the East China Sea at Shanghai. The river is the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It drains one-fifth of the land area of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and its river basin is home to one-third of the country's population.[6] The Yangtze is also one of the biggest rivers by discharge volume in the world.
The Yangtze River plays a large role in the history, culture and economy of China. The prosperous Yangtze River Delta generates as much as 20% of the PRC's GDP. The Yangtze River flows through a wide array of ecosystems and is itself habitat to several endemic and endangered species including the Chinese alligator, the finless porpoise, the Chinese paddlefish, the (possibly extinct) Yangtze River dolphin or baiji, and the Yangtze sturgeon. For thousands of years, the river has been used for water, irrigation, sanitation, transportation, industry, boundary-marking and war. The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River is the largest hydro-electric power station in the world.[7][8]
In recent years, the river has suffered from industrial pollution, agricultural run-off, siltation, and loss of wetland and lakes, which exacerbates seasonal flooding. Some sections of the river are now protected as nature reserves. A stretch of the Yangtze flowing through deep gorges in western Yunnan is part of the Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In mid-2014 the Chinese government announced it was building a multi-tier transport network, comprising railways, roads and airports, to create a new economic belt alongside the river.[9]

Names

Chinese

Because the source of the Yangtze was not ascertained until modern times, the Chinese have given different names to lower and upstream sections of the river.[10][11]
"Yangtze" was actually the name of Chang Jiang for the lower part from Nanjing to the river mouth at Shanghai. But due to the fact that western missionaries carried out their activities mainly in this area and got to know the name of this part of Chang Jiang, so somehow the Yangtze river was mistaken to the whole Chang Jiang in English language. It should be noted that in modern Chinese, Yangtze is still used to call the lower part of Chang Jiang from Nanjing to the river mouth. Yangtze never stands for the whole Chang Jiang.

Chang Jiang – "Long River"

Chang Jiang (长江/長江) is the modern Chinese name for the lower 2,884 km (1,792 mi) of the Yangtze from its confluence with the Min River at Yibin in Sichuan Province to the river mouth at Shanghai. Chang Jiang literally means the "Long River." In antiquity, this stretch of the Yangtze was simply called Jiang ,[12] a character that combines the water radical with the homophone (now pronounced gōng, but *kˤoŋ in Old Chinese[13]). Krong was probably a word in the Austroasiatic language of local peoples such as the Yue and is similar to *krong in Proto-Vietnamese and krung in Mon, all meaning "river".[14] By the Han Dynasty, Jiang had come to mean any river in Chinese, and this river was distinguished as the "Great River" 大江 (Dàjiāng). The epithet (or the simplified ), which means "long", was first formally applied to the river during the Six Dynasties period.[citation needed]
Various sections of Chang Jiang have local names. From Yibin to Yichang, the river through Sichuan and Chongqing Municipality is also known as the Chuan Jiang (川江, p Chuānjiāng) or "Sichuan River." In Hubei Province, the river is also called the Jing Jiang (荆江, p Jīngjiāng) or the "Jing River" after Jingzhou. In Anhui Province, the river takes on the local name Wan Jiang after the shorthand name for Anhui, wan (皖). And Yangzi Jiang t 揚子江s 扬子江, p Yángzǐjiāng) or the "Yangzi River", from which the English name Yangtze is derived, is the local name for the Lower Yangtze in the region of Yangzhou. The name likely comes from an ancient ferry crossing called Yangzi or Yangzijin (揚子 or 揚子津, p Yángzǐ or Yángzǐjīn).[15][16][17] Europeans who arrived in the Yangtze Delta region applied this local name to the entire river.[10]

Jinsha Jiang – "Gold Sands River"

The Jinsha River (金沙江, lit. "Gold Dust"[18] or "Golden-Sanded River"[19]) is the name for 2,308 km (1,434 mi) of the Yangtze from Yibin upstream to the confluence with the Batang River near Yushu in Qinghai Province. From Antiquity until the Ming Dynasty, this stretch of the river was believed to be a tributary of the Yangtze while the Min River was thought to be the main course of the river above Yibin. In the Tribute to Yu, written in the Fifth Century BCE, this section is called the Hei Shui 黑水 or the "Black Water." The name "Jinsha" originates in the Song dynasty when the river attracted large numbers of gold prospectors. Gold prospecting along the Jinsha continues to this day.[20] Prior to the Song dynasty, other names were used including, for example Lújiāng (瀘江) from the Three Kingdoms period.[21]

Tongtian River

The Tongtian River (通天河, lit. "River Passing Through Heaven") describes the 813 km (505 mi) section from Yushu up to the confluence with the Dangqu River. The name comes from a fabled river in the Journey to the West. In antiquity, it was called the Yak River. In Mongolian, this section is known as the Murui-ussu (lit. "Winding Stream").[22] and sometimes confused with the nearby Baishui.[11]

Tuotuo River

The Tuotuo River (沱沱河, p Tuótuó Hé, lit. "Tearful River"[23] is the official headstream of the Yangtze, and flows 358 km (222 mi) from the glaciers of the Gelaindong Massif in the Tanggula Mountains of southwestern Qinghai to the confluence with the Dangqu River to form the Tongtian River.[25]) In Mongolian, this section of the river known as the Ulaan Mörön or the "Red River".
The Tuotuo one of three main headstreams of the Yangtze. The Dangqu River (当曲, p Dāngqū) is the actual geographic headwater of the Yangtze.[citation needed] The name is derived the Tibetan for "Marsh River" (འདམ་ཆུ, w 'Dam Chu). The Chumar River (楚玛尔河) is the Chinese name for the northern headwater of the Yangtze, which flows from the Hoh Xil Mountains in Qinghai into the Tongtian. Chumar is Tibetan for the "Red River."

English

The river was called Quian () and Quiansui (江水) by Marco Polo[26] and appeared on the earliest English maps as Kian or Kiam,[27][28] all recording dialects which preserved forms of the Middle Chinese pronunciation of as Kæwng.[12] By the mid-19th century, these romanizations had standardized as Kiang; Dajiang, e.g., was rendered as "Ta-Kiang". "Keeang-Koo",[29] "Kyang Kew",[30] "Kian-ku",[31] and related names derived from mistaking the Chinese term for the mouth of the Yangtze (江口, p Jiāngkǒu) as the name of the river itself.
A map of China depicting the Yellow River's southerly path following its stabilization by the Grand Eunuch Li Xing's public works after the 1494 flood.
The name Blue River began to be applied in the 18th century,[27] apparently owing to a former name of the Dam Chu[33] or Min[35] and to analogy with the Yellow River,[36][37] but it was frequently explained in early English references as a 'translation' of Jiang,[38][39] Jiangkou,[29] or Yangzijiang.[40] Very common in 18th- and 19th-century sources, the name fell out of favor due to growing awareness of its lack of any connection to the river's Chinese names[19][41] and to the irony of its application to such a muddy waterway.[41][42]
The 1615 Latin account of the Jesuit missions to China included descriptions of the "Iansu" and "Iansuchian".[43] The posthumous account's translation of the name as "Son of the Ocean"[43][44] shows that Ricci, who by the end of his life was fluent in literary Chinese, was introduced to it as the homophonic 洋子江 rather than the 'proper' 揚子江. Further, although railroads and the Shanghai concessions subsequently turned it into a backwater, Yangzhou was the lower river's principal port for much of the Qing Dynasty, directing Liangjiang's important salt monopoly and connecting the Yangtze with the Grand Canal to Beijing. (That connection also made it one of the Yellow River's principal ports between the floods of 1344 and the 1850s, during which time the Yellow River ran well south of Shandong and discharged into the ocean only a few hundred kilometres away from the mouth of the Yangtze.[19][31]) By 1800, English cartographers such as Aaron Arrowsmith had adopted the French style of the name[45] as Yang-tse or Yang-tse Kiang.[46] The British diplomat Thomas Wade emended this to Yang-tzu Chiang as part of his formerly popular romanization of Chinese, based on the Beijing dialect instead of Nanjing's and first published in 1867. The spellings Yangtze and Yangtze Kiang was a compromise between the two methods adopted at the 1906 Imperial Postal Conference in Shanghai, which established Postal Map Romanization. Hanyu Pinyin was adopted by the PRC's First Congress in 1958, but it was not widely employed in English outside mainland China prior to the normalization of diplomatic relations between the United States and the PRC in 1979; since that time, the spelling Yangzi has also been used.

Tibetan

The source and upper reaches of the Yangtze are located in ethnic Tibetan areas of Qinghai.[47] In Tibetan, the Tuotuo headwaters are the Machu (རྨ་ཆུ་, w rMa-chu, lit. "Red River" or (perhaps "Wound-[like Red] River?")). The Tongtian is the Drichu (འབྲི་ཆུ་, w 'Bri Chu, lit. "River of the Female Yak"; transliterated into Chinese as 直曲, p Zhíqū).